Center pivot irrigation systems are designed and managed to apply water as uniformly as possible to enhance crop production. Uniformity has a direct effect on the system’s overall application efficiency, which is a measure of how well an irrigation system delivers water to a crop’s root zone.
By far, the greatest risk of losses from mite-vectored viruses occurs when there is a summer "green bridge" of volunteer wheat emerging before harvest. This almost always occurs as a result of wheat seed head shatter from hail storms (Figure 1).
In an ongoing survey for soilborne pathogens in soybeans, closer examination of soybean seedling injury in a Keith County field found several causes, including herbicide injury and damping off from Fusarium or Rhizoctonia root rot.