Making a Genetically Engineered Crop

stages of genetic engineering

 In general there are five different steps required for using biotechnology to creates a new crop variety.  These same steps are used no matter what the crop is.  We will use the example of BT corn for describing each of these five steps.  The soil bacterium, Bacillius thiurengensis, produces an insecticidal protein.  That protein is coded for by a certain gene, one example is cry 1Ab.

  1. All of the DNA from Bacillius thiurengensis, is isolated in a laboratory.
  2. In the laboratory the specific DNA sequence which makes up the cry 1Ab gene is found and copied.
  3. The cry 1Ab soil bacterium version of the gene is modified slightly so that it will work better once in a corn plant.
  4. In a laboratory a corn plant is transformed with this new modified cry 1Ab gene which will provide the corn plant with insecticidal protection.
  5. The corn plant which is able to be transformed does not contain all of the optimal genes which a producer needs in the field.  Therefore the last step in biotechnology, occurs in the field where plant breeders cross this corn plant (which contains the cry 1Ab gene) with their top performing lines to create a high yielding BT corn variety.

Try This Game

Who Wants to be a Genetic Engineer Animation

See how well you understand the general concepts of making a genetically engineered crop by playing this game, Who Wants to Be a Genetic Engineer?  Clicking this image will open a new window which you can make larger by clicking on and dragging the lower right-hand corner. You will not lose your place on this website page to play the game. 

Where to Find More Information

Try a shot at the game and animations below for learning more details.  You can also follow the links to the left for other topics directly involved with biotechnology.  Be sure to check out the Plant and Soil Sciences eLibrary, where there are over 100 animations and eLessons free for your use!

If you would like to attend a seminar, online course or an on-campus course just to learn more about biotechnology in plants, or to even work on a college degree, follow the Education Links.  Or give Kathy Schindler a quick call/email for more information on educational opportunities at: 402.472.1730, e-mail: kschindler1@unl.edu

More Details on the Steps

Click links here below to watch animations (in a new window) which depict more details involved with each of these steps:

 

Step 1 - DNA Extraction

DNA extraction cartoon

Step 2 - Copying the Gene

 

 PCR cartoon

Step 3 - Modifying the Gene

 

 

modification

Step 4 - Putting the New Gene into a Plant

 

 gene gun cartoon

Step 5 - Breeding Transgenic Plant with an Elite Line

 

 corn breeding